Main Article Content


Background: Batik artisans, particularly those involved in the "nyanting" process, are susceptible to lower back pain due to non-ergonomic working postures. These craftsmen sit for long durations as they meticulously apply wax to fabric. They utilize dingklik, which compels them to sit in a slightly hunched position. The repeated adoption of such postures can heighten the risk of lower back pain. This research aims to investigate the relationship between work posture, years of service, and the incidence of low back pain among "nyanting" batik artisans in Pulorejo Village

Methods: This observational analytical research employed a cross-sectional approach with 42 "nyanting" batik artisans chosen through a total sampling technique. Conducted in Pulorejo Village in January 2024, the research assessed work posture using the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) instrument, while the occurrence of low back pain was evaluated through history taking and physical examination. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 25.0 software.

Results: A significant positive correlation was found between years of service and the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) (p=0.002; r=0.471). The risk of LBP increases with the length of service. Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation between working posture, as indicated by the REBA score, and the occurrence of LBP (p=0.010; r=0.395). A higher REBA score corresponds to a greater risk of LBP.

Conclusions: the Years of service and the working posture were associated to  the incidence of low back pain (LBP) among "nyanting" batik artisans in Pulorejo Village.


low back pain nyanting body assessment working period

Article Details

Author Biographies

Susilo Budi Pratama, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

Department of Occupational Medicine

Lukman Faishal Fatharani, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

Department of Biomedicine

How to Cite
Pamungkas, M., Pratama, S. B., & Fatharani, L. F. (2024). The Influence of Work Posture and Work Duration on the Incidence of Low Back Pain Among Batik Artisans: a Cross-sectional Study: Work Posture and Work Duration . INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJHSRD), 6(1), 240–247.


  1. Low Back Pain Collaborators. Articles Global, regional, and national burden of low back pain, 1990-2020, its attributable risk factors, and projections to 2050: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease research 2021. Lancet. 2023;5(6):316-29.
  2. Agency for Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. Basic Health Research. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia; 2018.
  3. Bontrup C, Taylor WR, Fliesser M, Visscher R, Green T, Wippert P-M, et al. Low back pain and its relationship with sitting behaviour among sedentary office workers. Appl Ergon. 2019;81(1):102894.
  4. Wulan M, Hilal S, Entianopa. Comparison of low back pain complaints in written and stamped batik workers in Danau Teluk District, Jambi City in 2020. Indones J Heal Community. 2020;1(1):1-5.
  5. Knezevic NN, Candido KD, Vlaeyen JWS, Van Zundert J, Cohen SP. Low back pain. Lancet. 2021;398(10294):78–92.
  6. Yang H, Haldeman S, Lu M-L, Baker D. Low back pain prevalence and related workplace psychosocial risk factors: A research using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016;39(7):459-72.
  7. Pushpa BT, Rajasekaran S, Easwaran M, Murugan C, Algeri R, Sri Vijay Anand KS, et al. ISSLS PRIZE in basic science 2023: Lactate in lumbar discs-metabolic waste or energy biofuel? Insights from in vivo MRS and T2r analysis following exercise and nimodipine in healthy volunteers. Eur Spine J. 2023;32(5):1491-503.
  8. Saputra A. Relationship between Age, Work Attitude, and Working Period with Low Back Pain (LBP) Complaints among Batik Craftsmen in Batik Semarang 16. Thesis. Semarang: Faculty of Medicine, State University of Semarang; 2020.
  9. Prabarukmi GS, Widajati N. The relationship between ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints in batik makers. E-Journal Unair. 2020;10(11):269-78.
  10. Silitonga SSB, Utami TN. Relationship between Age and Length of Work with Low Back Pain Complaints in Fishermen in Belawan II Village. J Kesehat Masy. 2021;5(2):926-30.
  11. Mertimo T, Karppinen J, Niinimäki J, Blanco R, Määttä J, Kankaanpää M, et al. Association of lumbar disc degeneration with low back pain in middle age in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2022;23(1):359.
  12. Stueckle CA, Talarczyk S, Stueckle KF, Beisenherz C, Haage P. Back pain: a phenomenon of age? Degenerative alterations of the spine are normal with increasing age. But how is this "normal" in old age defined, does it compulsorily lead to more complaints and a relevant impairment of the quality of life? Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2022;55(6):489-95.
  13. Hollenbeck JFM, Cain CM, Fattor JA, Rullkoetter PJ, Laz PJ. Statistical shape modelling characterises three-dimensional shape and alignment variability in the lumbar spine. J Biomech. 2018;69(1):146-55.
  14. Li TP, Jain A, Cao X. Sources of lumbar back pain during aging and potential therapeutic targets. Litwack GBT-V and H, editors. Horm Aging. 2021;115(1):571-83.
  15. Osborne NR, Davis KD. Sex and gender differences in pain. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2022;164(1):277-307.
  16. Nuzzo JL. Narrative Review of Sex Differences in Muscle Strength, Endurance, Activation, Size, Fibre Type, and Strength Training Participation Rates, Preferences, Motivations, Injuries, and Neuromuscular Adaptations. J Strength Cond Res. 2023;37(2):1-9.
  17. Aulia AR, Wahyuni I, Jayanti S. The relationship between work duration, working period, and work posture with low back pain complaints among batik workers in Kauman Batik Village, Pekalongan City. Indonesian Public Health Media. 2023;22(2):120-4.
  18. Harwanti S, Ulfah N, Nurcahyo PJ. Factors that Influence Low Back Pain (LBP) among Workers in the Home Industry of Batik Sokaraja, Banyumas Regency. J Kesmas Indones. 2018;10(2):109-23.
  19. Wami SD, Abere G, Dessie A, Getachew D. Work-related risk factors and the prevalence of low back pain among low wage workers: results from a cross-sectional research. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1072.
  20. Coenen P, Kingma I, Boot CRL, Bongers PM, van Dieën JH. Cumulative mechanical low-back load at work is a determinant of low-back pain. Occup Environ Med. England; 2014 May;71(5):332-7.
  21. Harahap PS, Marisdayana R, Hudri MA. Factors Associated with Low Back Pain (LBP) Complaints among Workers of Batik Tulis Craftsmen in Pelayangan District, Jambi City in 2018. Ris Inf Kesehat. 2018;7(2):147-54.
  22. Akbar MI, Effendi DS, Dewi N, Lestari H, Kohali RE. Interconnection study of stunting events in North Buton District. InProceedings of the 2nd Alauddin Health and Medical International Conference 2024 Mar 28.
  23. Widja DMAA, Adiputra LMISH, Dinata MK. Relationship between Work Attitude and Low Back Pain among Batik Craftsmen in Pejeng Village, Gianyar. J Med Udayana. 2019;8(10):1-6.
  24. Siswiyanti, Rusnoto. Analysis of Work Posture in Batik Tulis Colouring (Traditional dyeing) and (Machine dyeing) Using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) Method. Proceedings of the 3rd Unisbank Multi Disciplinary National Seminar & Call of Papers. 2017. p. 263-72.