Main Article Content


Background: Kaempferia galanga L and Catharanthus roseus leaves are natural ingredients that can be used as a source of antioxidants because they can reduce oxidative damage to the body due to free radicals. The aim of this research was to determine whether the ethanol extract of kencur rhizome and tapak dara leaves alone or combined has antioxidant properties that are able to fight free radicals.

Methods: The method used to test antioxidant activity uses the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) method.

Results: the single ethanol extract of tapa dara leaves has antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 32.17 ppm and is classified as very strong, while the single extract of kencur rhizome has antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 17.30 ppm. and is classified as very strong. On the other hand, a mixture of ethanol extracts of tapak dara leaves and kencur rhizomes in a ratio of 1:2 showed very strong antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 15.65 ppm. A mixture of tapak dara leaves and kencur rhizomes in a ratio of 2:1 showed very strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 9.15 ppm. A mixture of galangal rhizome extract and tapak dara leaves in a ratio of 2:1 produces maximum antioxidant activity. This combination has very strong antioxidant activity compared to the individual forms of these compounds and is almost as strong as vitamin C which has an IC50 value of 5.30 ppm.

Conclusion: : the combination of galangal rhizome extract and tapak dara leaves in a ratio of 2:1 produces very strong antioxidant activity compared to the single form of both.


Antioxidants Muntingia calabura Moringa oleifera Kaempferia galanga L Catharanthus roseus

Article Details

How to Cite


  1. Budiana W, Suhardiman A, Kirana O. Antioxidant Activity of Kratok Nut Skin Extract (Phaseolus lunatus) and Pigeon Pea Fruit Skin (Cajanus cajan) Using the DPPH Method and Determining Total Flavonoid and Phenol Content. of Pharmacopolium. 2018;1(3):162–9.
  2. RI BP. Reference for Herbal Preparations. I. Jakarta: Directorate of Indonesian Original Medicines, Food and Drug Supervisory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia; 2010. 30–31 p.
  3. Alawiyah AL, Senania A, Sari A, Perdana F, Musthafa I. Antioxidant activity of volatile compounds fromSyzygium aromaticum( L .) leaves Antioxidant activity of volatile compounds from Syzygium aromaticum ( L .) leaves. oh Physics : Conference Series. 2019;1402(5):1–6.
  4. Primadiastri IZ, Wulansari ED, Suharsanti R. Comparison of Phenolic ContentTotal, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Guava Bol Leaves (Syzigium malaccense L.) and Guava Water Button Leaves (Syzigium aqueum). Indonesian Pharmaceutical Media. 2021;16(2):1670–6.
  5. Wahyulianingsih, Handayani S, Malik A. Determination of Total Flavonoid Content of Clove Leaf Extract (Syzygium aromaticum(L.) Merr & Perry). Indonesian Phytopharmaca. 2016;3(2):188–93.
  6. Muhafidzah Z, Seniwati, Syarif RA. Antioxidant Activity of Kencur Rhizome Fraction (Kaempferia rhizoma) Using the 1,1 Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) Reduction Method. As-Syifaa Scientific Journal. 2018;10(1):44–50.
  7. Verrananda MI, Yulita FV, Febrina L, Rijai L. Identification of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Tapak Dara Flower Extract (Catharanthus roseus). Proceedings of the 4th National Pharmacy Seminar. 2016;162–7.
  8. Kristanto A, Mustaqim WA, Suhartono E, Qomariah N. Screening of Medicinal Plants with Potential as In Vitro Antioxidants. Mutiara Medika: Journal of Medicine and Health. 2004. p. 5–11.
  9. Ikalinus R, Widyastuti SK, Eka Setiasih NL. Phytochemical Screening of Moringa Bark Ethanol Extract (Moringa oleifera). Indonesian Medicus Veterinus. 2015;4(1):77.
  10. Sari AK, Ayuchecaria N. Determination of Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoid Contents of Black Rice Extract (Oryza sativaL) from South Kalimantan. Ibn Sina Scientific Journal. 2017;2(2):327–35.
  11. Sukmawati, Sudewi S, Pontoh J. Optimization and Validation of Analytical Methods in Determining Total Flavonoid Content in Green Gedi Leaf Extract (Abelmoscus manihotL.) which was measured using a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. PHARMACON Pharmaceutical Scientific Journal-UNSRAT. 2018;7(3):32–41.
  12. Astika Winahyu D, Retnaningsih A, Aprillia M. DeterminationFlavanoid Levels in Wednesday Wood Bark (CotylelobiummelanoxylonP) using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometry Method. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysts. 2019;4(1):29–36.
  13. Wowor MGG, Tampara J, Suryanto E, Momuat LI. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Test Peel-Off Mask Ethanol Extract of Bird Kalu Leaves (Barleria prionitisL.). Scientific Journal of Science. 2022;22(1):75.
  14. Azizah DN, Kumolowati E, Faramayuda F.Determination of Flavonoid Levels Alcl3 Method in Methanol Extract of Cocoa Fruit Peel (Theobroma cacao L.) Dyah Nur Azizah, Endang Kumolowati, Fahrauk Faramayuda. Dec. 2014;2014(2):45–9.
  15. Ikhrar MS, Yudistira A, Wewengkang DS.Stylissa Sp. Antioxidant Activity Test. Using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. Pharmacon. 2019;8(4):961.
  16. Haryoto H, Frista A. Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extracts, Polar, Semipolar and FractionsNon-Polar from Peanut Mangrove Leaves (Rhizophora apiculata) using the DPPH and FRAP Methods. Journal of Science and Health. 2019;2(2):131–8.
  17. Lung JKS, Destiani DP. Test the Antioxidant Activity of Vitamins A, C, E using the DPPH Method. Pharmaca. 2018;15(1):53–62.
  18. Barru H, Fajar H, Prabawati EF, Jember AF.Test of the Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Edamame Seeds (Glycin max (L) Merrill) using the DPPH Method Hadi Barru Hakam Fajar Siddiq*, Rosida, Erika Fauziah Prabawati. 2016;(M):27–32.
  19. Gandjar IG, Rohman A. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Analysis. Yogyakarta: Student Library; 2007.
  20. Hasanah N, Novian DR. Analysis of Ethanol Extract of Yellow Pumpkin Fruit (Cucurbita moschataD.). Analysis of Ethanol Extract of Yellow Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata D). 2020;9(1):54–9.
  21. Pujiastuti E, Ma'rifah S. Effect of Drying on Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity of 70% Ethanol Extract of Jamblang Leaves (Syzygium cumini). Pharmacy Barn: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022;3(2):318–24.
  22. Hayati EK, Ningsih R, Latifah. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids from Rhizome Kaemferia galanga L. Extract. Alchemy. 2016;4(2):127.
  23. Fitri D, Kiromah NZW, Widiastuti TC. Formulation and Characterization of Bay Leaf Ethanol Extract Nanoparticles (Syzygium polyanthum) on various variations in chitosan composition using the ionic gelation method. JPSCR: Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Research. 2020;5(1):61.
  24. Rudiana T, Indriatmoko DD, Komariah. Antioxidant Activity of a Combination of Ethanol Extracts of Bay Leaves (Syzygium polyanthum) and Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera). Pharmacy and Pharmacology Magazine. 2020;25(1):20–2.
  25. Hidayat M, Soeng S, Prahastuti S, Patricia TH, Yonathan KA. Antioxidant and Antitriglyceride Activity of Soybean Single Extract, Dutch Teak Leaves and Their Combination. Bionatura-Journal of Life and Physical Sciences ISSN 1411 - 0903. 2014;16(2):89–94.
  26. Molyneux P. The Use of the Stable Free Radical Diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) for Estimating Antioxidant Activity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. 2004;26(December 2003):211–9.
  27. Huliselan YM, Runtuwene MRJ, Wewengkang DS.Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate, and N-Hexane Extracts from Sesewanua Leaves (Clerodendron squamatum Vahl.). Pharmacon. 2015;4(3):155–63.
  28. Ginting AF, Suryanto E, Momuat LI. Antioxidant Activity of Water and Ethanol Extracts from Baruk Sago Stem Pith (Arenga microcarpha). Chemistry Progress. 2015;8(2):48–54.
  29. Marianne M, Patilaya P, Barus BT. Antioxidant Activity Test of Combination Ethanol Extract of Temu Giring Rhizome (Curcuma heyneana) and Pugun Tanoh (Curanga Fel-Terrae) Leaves Using the Diphenyl Picrylhydrazil (DPPH) Method. Talenta Conference Series: Tropical Medicine (TM). 2018;1(2):398–404.