Main Article Content
Background:As students spend more time for online class sessions by using computer, they get more prone toblue light exposure.Visual problems among the university students can have an adverse impact on their educational and employment opportunities.The aim of this study is to investigate the blue light exposure and visual problems among the undergraduate university students.
Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out in a private medical school in the Kedah state, Malaysia. Total of 200 students from pre-clinical years were taken as sample by convenient sampling method.A self-administered structured questionnaire was used, and the data were computerized and analysed by using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22.
Results: The prevalence of refractive error was 66.6% and the highest problem was short sightedness with astigmatism. Sufficient awareness towards eye problems was noticed among the respondents. More than 90% of the students showed satisfactory knowledge related to the harmful effects of blue light.Dry eyes and recent headache were associated to fluorescent light. Recent visual complaints were depending on computer exposure whilerecent headache was related to mobile use. Worsening of eye problems and computer or projector exposure were found to be associated.
Conclusion: Our study highlights the constrained awareness among novice medical students regarding ocular health. We carefully discerned the pattern of blue light exposure and the prevalence of ocular symptoms and refractive errors in the studied population. Recommendations for further research that can help improve eye health were suggested.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Where is Blue Light Found? — Blue Light Exposed, http://www.bluelightexposed.com/where-is-blue-light-found (accessed 6 September 2021).
- How Does Blue Light Affect You?, https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/blue-light-health (accessed 6 September 2021).
- Zhao Z-C, Zhou Y, Tan G, et al. Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes. Int J Ophthalmol 2018; 11: 1999.
- BluTech Lenses- Blue Light Blocking Glasses, https://blutechlenses.com/blog/college-students-are-spending-10-hours-each-day-on-their-phone/ (accessed 6 September 2021).
- Hashemi H, Fotouhi A, Yekta A, et al. Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractive errors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Curr Ophthalmol 2018; 30: 3.
- KS N, J L, RR B, et al. Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. Optom Vis Sci 2016; 93: 227–234.
- Malaysian Family Physicians - Prevalence of eye diseases and visual impairment, https://www.e-mfp.org/old/2008v3n1/prevalence_eye_diseases.html (accessed 6 September 2021).
- Chew FLM, Salowi MA, Mustari Z, et al. Estimates of visual impairment and its causes from the National Eye Survey in Malaysia (NESII). PLoS One 2018; 13: e0198799.
- Sawaya RIT, Meski N El, Saba JB, et al. Asthenopia Among University Students: The Eye of the Digital Generation. J Fam Med Prim Care 2020; 9: 3921.
- Eye Problems Due to Online Classes | Affordable Colleges Online, https://www.affordablecollegesonline.org/college-resource-center/college-vision-problems/ (accessed 6 September 2021).
- PDF. A Study of Refractive Errors among Medical students in AIMST University, Malaysia, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216705844_A_Study_of_Refractive_Errors_among_Medical_students_in_AIMST_University_Malaysia (accessed 8 September 2021).
- Saw SM, Chan YH, Wong WL, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors in the Singapore Malay Eye Survey. Ophthalmology 2008; 115: 1713–1719.
- Megbelayin EO, Asana UE, Nkanga DG, et al. Refractive Errors and Spectacle Use Behavior among Medical Students in a Nigerian Medical School. J Adv Med Med Res 2014; 4: 2581–2589.
- BM A, MJ D. Are there differences between ‘visual symptoms’ and specific ocular symptoms associated with video display terminal (VDT) use? Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2007; 30: 174–182.
- Han C-C, Liu R, Liu R-R, et al. Prevalence of asthenopia and its risk factors in Chinese college students. Int J Ophthalmol 2013; 6: 718.
- Mohamud MA. Frequency of presenting clinical features of asthenopia (ocular fatigue) in refractive patients. Ophthalmol Pakistan 2017; 7: 15–19.
- J P-N, JR R, LJ S, et al. Blue light exposure reduces objective measures of sleepiness during prolonged nighttime performance testing. Chronobiol Int 2009; 26: 891–912.
- Shen Q, Xu L, Jiang Y, et al. Survey and Statistical Analysis of Hangzhou Citizens’ Awareness of Harmful Blue Light and Consciousness of Protection Against Blue Light. JPhCS 2020; 1616: 012074.
- TH M, M B, J M, et al. Do blue light filters confer protection against age-related macular degeneration? Prog Retin Eye Res 2004; 23: 523–531.
- C G-H, JL D. Could blue light-blocking lenses decrease the risk of age-related macular degeneration? Retina 2006; 26: 1–4.